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The optimization of adhesive bonding between different engineering materials is one of Firma L O Andersson top specialities.  

A complete and reliable bond is indispensable to ensure function and safety for the actual component during its service life. 


BUT in some cases, poor adhesion is beneficial.


Icing and adfreeze on mechanical components as well as on objects submerged in water are well known phenomena in 

arctic and subarctic regions. They involve, in broad terms, problems from the annoying adfreeze of windscreen wipers to

more severe cases like ice build-up on trash racks at hydro power plants and icing on aircraft. Please follow the link to 

find the Licentiate Theses:

Ice Accretion and Ice Adhesion to Polymer Materials. 1993. Licentiate Thesis, Luleå University of Technology  

Link to the thesis:        



In this work icing and adfreeze was studied from a surface chemistry point of view and it comprises three main parts:


- Laboratory tests of ice adhesion to different materials.       (See example of micrograph of ice test sample in polarized light)

- Laboratory tests of ice accretion.

- Tests of frazil ice accumulation and atmospheric icing at field sites.


Studies and work/testing were partly conducted at the US Army Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory  

(CRREL), in Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A., The Institute of Surface Chemistry and The Royal Institute of 

Technology in Stockholm.  



Field testing of atmospheric icing in Sweden was performed at the summit of the mountain Akkanålke, Arvidsjaur.  (See image showing part of test set-up of tubes with different surfaces).



Field testing of frazil ice formation and ice build-up on hydro power trash racks was performed at three hydro power plants in three different rivers: Finnfors power plant in Skellefte älv (Skellefteå Kraft AB); Untraverket power plant in Älvkarleby in Dalälven (Vattenfall AB) and Olidan power plant, Trollhättan in Göta älv (Vattenfall AB).

Despite much effort to handle icing and adfreeze during the years, the problem remains to a large extent.







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